武宣| 柏乡| 错那| 博乐| 新源| 西安| 敦化| 牙克石| 盐源| 大兴| 汝阳| 赤水| 礼县| 苏州| 乡宁| 昂仁| 呼图壁| 郴州| 德州| 香格里拉| 漠河| 景谷| 洛川| 柘城| 榆中| 湾里| 澎湖| 金堂| 枣阳| 井冈山| 盐边| 富川| 民权| 石景山| 宁陵| 井陉| 灵石| 丰宁| 丰顺| 梓潼| 浪卡子| 栾城| 和林格尔| 献县| 日喀则| 张北| 青县| 龙泉驿| 怀柔| 乌海| 贡觉| 梅里斯| 喀什| 通许| 梓潼| 蒙自| 宁阳| 元氏| 张掖| 海阳| 杭锦旗| 密山| 罗平| 金昌| 庆元| 美姑| 大新| 五华| 静宁| 元阳| 青县| 定远| 榕江| 永寿| 平远| 云南| 辉南| 洛扎| 万盛| 新巴尔虎右旗| 平遥| 栖霞| 农安| 泸县| 鹤山| 邯郸| 鄂伦春自治旗| 邵阳县| 榆树| 孙吴| 江孜| 重庆| 文县| 衡水| 武宁| 江达| 牙克石| 平度| 肇庆| 皋兰| 内乡| 义县| 河池| 临漳| 石棉| 歙县| 砚山| 鄢陵| 兴文| 新泰| 小河| 南沙岛| 民和| 会宁| 贵南| 彰武| 漠河| 花莲| 正阳| 陕县| 澄江| 彭水| 肇州| 开原| 黔西| 塔城| 巴彦淖尔| 陕县| 腾冲| 遂宁| 容县| 松滋| 神池| 三原| 旌德| 贵池| 阜新市| 麻山| 达县| 三都| 临川| 邕宁| 理县| 滨州| 邻水| 余干| 集安| 乃东| 湘东| 毕节| 晋中| 迁西| 尚义| 阳山| 武鸣| 五营| 宜章| 武陵源| 宜兰| 乌拉特前旗| 福建| 玉门| 青州| 耒阳| 达孜| 许昌| 乐至| 阿瓦提| 江西| 肃北| 丹寨| 桑植| 雅安| 安丘| 杜尔伯特| 攀枝花| 镇巴| 方城| 定结| 原平| 乌伊岭| 宣化区| 阿巴嘎旗| 登封| 正阳| 五华| 雷山| 赵县| 临潭| 澄海| 顺平| 弓长岭| 威海| 惠来| 渭南| 波密| 泾川| 纳溪| 宣恩| 大同县| 普陀| 仁寿| 平阴| 让胡路| 宜良| 裕民| 威宁| 萨嘎| 金川| 东乡| 壤塘| 鹤庆| 钟祥| 柳林| 宜良| 会理| 夷陵| 金州| 新宾| 河源| 玛沁| 西峡| 资源| 新化| 延长| 伊宁县| 阿勒泰| 杭锦旗| 滦县| 蓝山| 房县| 浙江| 兴宁| 秦安| 东胜| 新绛| 闽清| 郴州| 沈阳| 汉阳| 泰顺| 大渡口| 铁山| 西安| 城阳| 丰县| 阜平| 涞源| 平度| 竹溪| 白山| 福安| 灯塔| 乐安| 澄海| 新都| 岐山| 疏附| 新疆| 白沙| 珊瑚岛| 莒县| 满洲里|

四川全省首例监委移送司法案件宣判

2019-09-23 00:19 来源:西江网

  四川全省首例监委移送司法案件宣判

  TheSoyuzMS-09spacecraftforthenextInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)crew,,AlexanderGerstofGermanyandcosmonautSergeyProkopyevofRussia,isseenbeingsetatthelaunchpadaheadofitsupcominglaunch,attheBaikonurCosmodrome,Kazakhstan,June4,2018.(Photo/Agencies)TheSoyuzMS-09spacecraftforthenextInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)crew,,AlexanderGerstofGermanyandcosmonautSergeyProkopyevofRussia,isseenbeingsetatthelaunchpadaheadofitsupcominglaunch,attheBaikonurCosmodrome,Kazakhstan,June4,2018.(Photo/Agencies)TheSoyuzMS-09spacecraftforthenextInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)crew,,AlexanderGerstofGermanyandcosmonautSergeyProkopyevofRussia,istransportedfromanassemblinghangartothelaunchpadaheadofitsupcominglaunch,attheBaikonurCosmodrome,Kazakhstan,June4,2018.(Photo/Agencies)TheSoyuzMS-09spacecraftforthenextInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)crew,,AlexanderGerstofGermanyandcosmonautSergeyProkopyevofRussia,istransportedfromanassemblinghangartothelaunchpadaheadofitsupcominglaunch,attheBaikonurCosmodrome,Kazakhstan,June4,2018.(Photo/Agencies)(CNS),astate-levelnewsagencysponsoredandestablishedbyChinesejournalistsandrenownedoverseasChineseexpertsonOctober1,(),,,includingin-depthcoverage,featurestoriesandvisualcontent,withtopicssuchascurrentevents,art,lifestyle,(CNS)isnotonlyastate-levelnewsagencyspreadingnewsworldwide,butalsoaninternationalnewsagencywithsubscribersinTaiwan,HongKongandMacao,,formervicechairmanoftheStandingCommitteeoftheNationalPeoplesCongress,,therewereothermajorsponsorsandbuilders,suchasJinZhonghua,HuYuzhi,,awell-knownexpertoninternationalissues,,CNSwastheInternationalNewsService,,adatabaseofinforma(includingwritings,photosandspecialarticles)andamodernmethodofreporting(mainlythroughinternet,videosandSMS)providedtooverse,,HongKongandMacao,aswellasbranchesorreportstationsinTokyo,Bangkok,KualaLumpur,NewYork,Washington,LosAngeles,SanFrancisco,Vancouver,London,Paris,,andnewsreleasecentershavebeenestablishedinBeijing,,multi-levelandmulti-functionnewsreleasesystem,CNSprovidesallkindsofnewsandinformation,’,,1999,theheadquartersofCNSlauncheditsofficialwebsite,namedChinanews().ChinanewsisconsideredoneofChina’smostimportantonlinenewssources.

CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofTuandaoinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay4,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,LiZiheng)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofQingdaoPortinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay7,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonApril16,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofQingdaoSportsCenterinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin2000(upper)andonMay13,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,LiZiheng)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofZhanqiaoPierinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay4,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofMaidaoinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin1996(upper)andonMay4,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,LiZiheng)CombinedphotosshowaerialviewsofOlympicSailingCenter,whichusedtobeashipyard,inQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,takenrespectivelyin2000(upper)andonApril16,akenbyphoto,asoneofthefirstChinesecitiestoopenup,wasanimportantportfortheBeltandRoad,andthatpeoplecouldsensetheextensive,profoundlocalcultureandthevitalityofChinasreformandopening-up.(Xinhua/ZhangYan,GuoXulei)InthisaerialphototakenonJune2,2018,anunmannedsprayerworksinafieldduringthedemonstrationofanagriculturalpilotprogramfeaturingunmannedproductionprocessinXinghua,eastChinasJiangsuProvince.(Xinhua/LiXiang)InthisaerialphototakenonJune2,2018,anunmannedcombineharvesterworksinafieldduringthedemonstrationofanagriculturalpilotprogramfeaturingunmannedproductionprocessinXinghua,eastChinasJiangsuProvince.(Xinhua/LiXiang)AnunmannedcombineharvesterworksinafieldduringthedemonstrationofanagriculturalpilotprogramfeaturingunmannedproductionprocessinXinghua,eastChinasJiangsuProvince,June2,2018.(Xinhua/LiXiang)InthisaerialphototakenonJune2,2018,anunmannedricetransplanterworksinafieldduringthedemonstrationofanagriculturalpilotprogramfeaturingunmannedproductionprocessinXinghua,eastChinasJiangsuProvince.(Xinhua/LiXiang)InthisaerialphototakenonJune2,2018,anunmannedricetransplanterworksinafieldduringthedemonstrationofanagriculturalpilotprogramfeaturingunmannedproductionprocessinXinghua,eastChinasJiangsuProvince.(Xinhua/LiXiang)InthisaerialphototakenonJune2,2018,anunmannedcombineharvesterworksinafieldduringthedemonstrationofanagriculturalpilotprogramfeaturingunmannedproductionprocessinXinghua,eastChinasJiangsuProvince.(Xinhua/LiXiang)InthisaerialphototakenonJune2,2018,adroneworksoverafieldduringthedemonstrationofanagriculturalpilotprogramfeaturingunmannedproductionprocessinXinghua,eastChinasJiangsuProvince.(Xinhua/LiXiang)InthisaerialphototakenonJune2,2018,anunmannedcombineharvesterworksinafieldduringthedemonstrationofanagriculturalpilotprogramfeaturingunmannedproductionprocessinXinghua,eastChinasJiangsuProvince.(Xinhua/LiXiang)InthisaerialphototakenonJune2,2018,twounmannedsprayersworkinafieldduringthedemonstrationofanagriculturalpilotprogramfeaturingunmannedproductionprocessinXinghua,eastChinasJiangsuProvince.(Xinhua/LiXiang)

  CraftswomanLiWenlingshowsherpaper-cuttingworksatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June6,2018.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)PhototakenonJune6,2018showsafolkmusicperformanceatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)PhototakenonJune6,2018showsateaartshowatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)CraftsmanMuXujianshowsdoughsculpturemakingtojournalistsatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June6,2018.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)CraftsmanMuXujianmakesdoughsculpturesatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June6,2018.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)Nationalcollegeentranceexami,theGenerationZ,whoisabouttotakethetests,,morethanhalfoftheover20,,severaldaysaheadoftheupcomingexaminationsthisyear,s,dtrytogetintohigherlearninginstitutionsthroughapplyingforartschools,vocationalschools,ers,31percentweretheirparents,while11percentwereothernetizens.“Thenationalcollegeentranceexaminationsarenottheonlywayout,”NanjingstudentXieTianrentoldXiandaijinNewspaper.“’mconfidentatit.”“Teensbornbetweerformance,”intoconsiderationwhenapplyingforthecollegesand14percentoftheparentssaidtheywouldsupporttheirchildren’“MydreamschoolisBeijingNormalUniversitybecauseIwanttomeetwithProfessorKangZhenthere,”“BeingafanoffootballclubBayernMunich,IhopetostudyinGerman.”Chinesecollegeshavebeenadaptingforthenewgenerationbyofferingnewmajors,includingdatascienceandbigdatatechnology,robotengineering,intelligentscienceandtechnology,,Chineseeducationauthoritieshaveaskednottotaketopscorersoftheexaminationsaspublicitystunts,whichisamovebroadlyseenasawayofcoolingdownthecrazeofthenationaltests.

  Nationalcollegeentranceexami,theGenerationZ,whoisabouttotakethetests,,morethanhalfoftheover20,,severaldaysaheadoftheupcomingexaminationsthisyear,s,dtrytogetintohigherlearninginstitutionsthroughapplyingforartschools,vocationalschools,ers,31percentweretheirparents,while11percentwereothernetizens.“Thenationalcollegeentranceexaminationsarenottheonlywayout,”NanjingstudentXieTianrentoldXiandaijinNewspaper.“’mconfidentatit.”“Teensbornbetweerformance,”intoconsiderationwhenapplyingforthecollegesand14percentoftheparentssaidtheywouldsupporttheirchildren’“MydreamschoolisBeijingNormalUniversitybecauseIwanttomeetwithProfessorKangZhenthere,”“BeingafanoffootballclubBayernMunich,IhopetostudyinGerman.”Chinesecollegeshavebeenadaptingforthenewgenerationbyofferingnewmajors,includingdatascienceandbigdatatechnology,robotengineering,intelligentscienceandtechnology,,Chineseeducationauthoritieshaveaskednottotaketopscorersoftheexaminationsaspublicitystunts,whichisamovebroadlyseenasawayofcoolingdownthecrazeofthenationaltests.LeonardoDaVinci’ssketchTheKnightonshowattheZhejiangExhibitionHallinHangzhouCity,EastChina’sZhejiangProvince,June5,rtistsofRenaissanceItaly-Leonardo,RaphaelandMichelangelo.(Photo/)Theexhibitionof250itemsincludingworksbythreeofthegreatmasterartistsofRenaissanceItaly-Leonardo,RaphaelandMichelangelowillopenattheZhejiangExhibitionHallinHangzhouCity,EastChina’sZhejiangProvinceonJune8,’spaintingMonaLisamadebyoneofhisfollowersisonshowattheZhejiangExhibitionHallinHangzhouCity,EastChina’sZhejiangProvince,June5,rtistsofRenaissanceItaly-Leonardo,RaphaelandMichelangelo.(Photo/)Theexhibitionof250itemsincludingworksbythreeofthegreatmasterartistsofRenaissanceItaly-Leonardo,RaphaelandMichelangelowillopenattheZhejiangExhibitionHallinHangzhouCity,EastChina’sZhejiangProvinceonJune8,2018.

Nine103-year-oldCadburychocolatebarshavebeendiscoveredamongthemementosofRichardBullimore,whoservn$2,600atauctiononJune5,2018.(Photo/VCG)Nine103-year-oldCadburychocolatebarshavebeendiscoveredamongthemementosofRichardBullimore,whoservn$2,600atauctiononJune5,2018.(Photo/VCG)Nine103-year-oldCadburychocolatebarshavebeendiscoveredamongstthemementosofRichardBullimore,whoservn$2,600atauctiononJune5,2018.(Photo/VCG)

  PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)

  TheFengyun-2Hmeteorologicalsatellite,carriedbyaLongMarch-3Arocket,islaunchedfromtheXichangSatelliteLaunchCenterinsouthwestChinasSichuanProvince,June5,2018.(Xinhua/LiangKeyan)TheFengyun-2Hmeteorologicalsatellite,carriedbyaLongMarch-3Arocket,islaunchedfromtheXichangSatelliteLaunchCenterinsouthwestChinasSichuanProvince,June5,2018.(Xinhua/LiuKun)TheFengyun-2Hmeteorologicalsatellite,carriedbyaLongMarch-3Arocket,islaunchedfromtheXichangSatelliteLaunchCenterinsouthwestChinasSichuanProvince,June5,2018.(Xinhua/LiuKun)AviewofilluminatedstalactiteformationsattheJixingyanscenicareainDebaoCounty,SouthChina’sGuangxiZhuangAutonomousRegion,June3,,thesecond-highestonChina’stourismscale.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenWen)AviewofilluminatedstalactiteformationsattheJixingyanscenicareainDebaoCounty,SouthChina’sGuangxiZhuangAutonomousRegion,June3,,thesecond-highestonChina’stourismscale.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenWen)AviewofilluminatedstalactiteformationsattheJixingyanscenicareainDebaoCounty,SouthChina’sGuangxiZhuangAutonomousRegion,June3,,thesecond-highestonChina’stourismscale.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenWen)AviewofilluminatedstalactiteformationsattheJixingyanscenicareainDebaoCounty,SouthChina’sGuangxiZhuangAutonomousRegion,June3,,thesecond-highestonChina’stourismscale.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenWen)AviewofilluminatedstalactiteformationsattheJixingyanscenicareainDebaoCounty,SouthChina’sGuangxiZhuangAutonomousRegion,June3,,thesecond-highestonChina’stourismscale.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenWen)AviewofilluminatedstalactiteformationsattheJixingyanscenicareainDebaoCounty,SouthChina’sGuangxiZhuangAutonomousRegion,June3,,thesecond-highestonChina’stourismscale.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ChenWen)

  WednesdayisMangzhonginChinese,or“GraininEar”inEnglish,,“busyplanting”inChinese,whichisalsoanaccuratedescriptionofhowfarmers’lifeisduringthisperiodoftime.“Busy”,farmershavebeenbusyplantingvariouscropsaccordingtotheconditionsoftheirfields,suchasbeans,,,antrainfall,andinsouthernChina,thisperiodoftimehasaspecialnamethe“PlumRain”“PlumRain”season,,andtornadoes,hailstones,stormsanddroughtaremorecommon,,itisalsoatimewhenmanyinsectsstarttoappear,,becausetheChinesebelievethatitonlydrinksjuicefromtreesandeatsnoother“unclean”,suchassculptures,,whosevoicemarksthesummer’:thedrinkthatmakestimebetterThePlumRainmaybeannoying,butnottheplumwine,,,,a,,peoplealsomakeplumwinewithalcohol,,therearealsomanystoriesrelatedwiththedrink,,Mangzhongisnolongerwidelycelebratedasaspecialevent,,inthepast,itwasadaydedi,girlswouldmakehorsesandsedansusingsi,,whichwasmarkedontheseconddayofthesecondlunarmonth,,therearedetaileddescriptionsandrecordsoftheeventinmanyChineseclassics,suchasoneofthebestclassics,“ADreamoftheRedMansions”writtenbyCaoXueqin,awriteroftheQingDynasty(1644-1912).Itisindeedafarewellparty,butnotsosentimentallycelebratedasitoncewas,sincetheflowersofthesummerseasonarereadytobloom.

  ApoliceofficerstumbleswhilerunningawayfromanewpyroclasticflowspewedbytheFuegovolcanointhecommunityofSanMiguelLosLotesinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)ApoliceofficerstumbleswhilerunningawayfromanewpyroclasticflowspewedbytheFuegovolcanointhecommunityofSanMiguelLosLotesinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AerialviewoftheaftermathofavolcanoeruptioninEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)Rescuersuseabackhoeloadertoclearastreetattheash-coveredvillageofSanMiguelLosLotes,inEscuintladepartment,about35kmsouthwestofGuatemalaCity,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)ApoliceofficerstumbleswhilerunningawayfromanewpyroclasticflowspewedbytheFuegovolcanointhecommunityofSanMiguelLosLotesinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AerialviewoftheaftermathofavolcanoeruptioninEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AroadsigncoveredwithashisseenafterFuegovolcanoeruptedinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)PhototakenonMarch15,2018showsculturalrelicspreservedatDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinaerofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)AmonkisseenatDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinasQinghaiProvince,March15,erofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)PhototakenonMarch15,2018showsculturalrelicspreservedatDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinaerofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)PhototakenonMarch15,2018showstheDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinaerofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)AerialphototakenonMarch15,2018showstheDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinaerofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)PhototakenonMarch15,2018showsculturalrelicspreservedatDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinaerofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)PhototakenonMarch15,2018showstheDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinaerofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)

  ApoliceofficerstumbleswhilerunningawayfromanewpyroclasticflowspewedbytheFuegovolcanointhecommunityofSanMiguelLosLotesinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)ApoliceofficerstumbleswhilerunningawayfromanewpyroclasticflowspewedbytheFuegovolcanointhecommunityofSanMiguelLosLotesinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AerialviewoftheaftermathofavolcanoeruptioninEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)Rescuersuseabackhoeloadertoclearastreetattheash-coveredvillageofSanMiguelLosLotes,inEscuintladepartment,about35kmsouthwestofGuatemalaCity,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)ApoliceofficerstumbleswhilerunningawayfromanewpyroclasticflowspewedbytheFuegovolcanointhecommunityofSanMiguelLosLotesinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AerialviewoftheaftermathofavolcanoeruptioninEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AroadsigncoveredwithashisseenafterFuegovolcanoeruptedinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)

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习近平多次引用的张载“横渠四句”究竟有何深意?

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来源:人民日报

“为天地立心,为生民立命,为往圣继绝学,为万世开太平”这四句言简意宏、掷地有声的名言,被后儒尊为“横渠四句”(冯友兰先生)或“横渠四句教”(马一浮先生),其作者,正是张载。

张载长期讲学的横渠书院

今年4月26日,习近平总书记在知识分子、劳动模范、青年代表座谈会上的讲话中指出,我国知识分子历来有浓厚的家国情怀,有强烈的社会责任感,“修身齐家治国平天下”“为天地立心、为生民立命、为往圣继绝学、为万世开太平”“先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”,这些思想为一代又一代知识分子所尊崇。5月17日,他在哲学社会科学工作座谈会上的讲话中又指出,自古以来,我国知识分子就有“为天地立心,为生民立命,为往圣继绝学,为万世开太平”的志向和传统,一切有理想、有抱负的哲学社会科学工作者都应该立时代之潮头、通古今之变化、发思想之先声,积极为党和人民述学立论、建言献策,担负起历史赋予的光荣使命。

“为天地立心,为生民立命,为往圣继绝学,为万世开太平”这四句言简意宏、掷地有声的名言,被后儒尊为“横渠四句”(冯友兰先生)或“横渠四句教”(马一浮先生),其作者,正是张载。

张载画像

生平及作为——

张载进则为循吏,退则为乡贤,以实际行动在当时历史条件下开拓了儒者担当新局面

晚清“中兴第一名臣”曾国藩曾作《圣哲画像记》一文,从数千年灿若群星的中华历史伟人中精选32位,作为子孙治学的门径:

文周孔孟,班马左庄,葛陆范马,周程朱张,

韩柳欧曾,李杜苏黄,许郑杜马,顾秦姚王。

其中,“周程朱张”分别指周敦颐,程颢程颐兄弟(被视为一人),朱熹和张载。北宋中期,张载讲学关中,他的学术思想被称为“关学”,与周敦颐的“濂学”、二程的“洛学”、南宋朱熹的“闽学”并称为宋代的四大学派。“孟轲死,千年间,得孔子之心传者,惟周程张朱数人而已矣。”这是中华八百年来的共识,“濂洛关闽”“周程张朱”已成为人们称谓宋代理学的口头禅,为了押韵,曾国藩将其改为“周程朱张”。

张载(1020—1077),字子厚,其名和字取义于《周易·坤卦》:“君子以厚德载物。”祖籍大梁(今开封),侨居郿县(今陕西眉县)横渠镇,著书讲学,传道授业,“为关中士人宗师”,世称“横渠先生”。

张载少年时就对兵法有浓厚兴趣。当时,北宋西部边境经常受到西夏侵扰,处于边境的张载,和很多年轻人一样,对此格外关注,也曾梦想投笔从戎、收复失地。庆历元年(1041),西夏出兵攻占洮西之地(今甘肃一带),形势危急,张载给时任陕西经略安抚副使、主持西北地区军务的范仲淹上书,请求对西夏用兵,并自告奋勇准备联络一些人去攻取被西夏占领的洮西之地,为国家立功。张载信中所附的《边议》,展现了这位热血青年学以致用、经略边疆的远大抱负和不凡智谋,这让一向乐于奖掖后进的范仲淹惊喜异常。

范仲淹就是《圣哲画像记》中“葛陆范马”的“范”,字希文,谥文正,“文正”是“谥之极美,无以复加”,是宋以后文人士大夫梦寐以求的谥号。他“出为名相,处为名贤”“材兼文武,永履仁义”,无论在朝主政、出帅戍边,均系国之安危、时之重望于一身,所以,“先儒论宋朝人物,以范仲淹为第一”。作为一位起于布衣的君子,范仲淹一生砥砺名节,不易操守,不仅是著名政治家和军事家,还是卓越的文学家和教育家,一生孜孜于传道授业,并以其人格魅力言传身教,悉心培养和荐拔人才;作为宋学开山,他开风气之先,文章论议,必本诸仁义。连一向很少称赞人的朱熹也由衷称叹:“范文正杰出之才,本朝道学之盛,亦有其渐,自范文正以来已有好议论。”他开创的义庄慈善事业,前后运作八百多年,一直到清末宣统年间,义庄仍有田产5300亩,运作良好,可谓中华民族乃至人类慈善史上的一大奇观。

范仲淹是一位随时随地发现人才、爱护人才、培养人才的士林领袖,襟怀坦荡,光明俊伟。“宋仁之世,安定先生起于南,泰山先生起于北”,宋初儒学复兴运动的南北重镇安定先生胡瑗、泰山先生孙复,都曾得到他的直接指导和关怀。

张载保卫家乡、收复失地的爱国热情得到了范仲淹的高度赞赏,并因此在延州军府受到接见。在深入了解张载的学养与抱负之后,范仲淹点拨了一句话,这句话深刻影响了这位青年的人生走向:“儒家自有名教可乐,何事于兵!”意思是说你作为儒生,本分是研习儒学、重振儒学,不必研究军事博取功名,并且因材施教,勉励张载研读儒家学说中最富于哲学色彩的《中庸》。

认真研读《中庸》后,张载又认真研习佛老思想,最后回归儒家,形成了一套完整的思想体系,史称其学“尊礼贵德,乐天安命,以《易》为宗,以《中庸》为体,以孔孟为法”,可见范仲淹知人之明与张载进学之笃。明儒王阳明曾说:“关中自古多豪杰,其忠信沉毅之质,明达英伟之器,四方之士,吾见亦多矣,未有如关中之盛者也。”这样的评价并非过誉之词,张载以及历史上其他关中学者也当之无愧。

嘉佑二年(1057),张载赴汴京(开封)应考,时值欧阳修主考,张载与苏轼、苏辙兄弟同登进士。先后任祁州(今河北安国)司法参军、云岩县令(今陕西宜川境内)著作佐郎、签书渭州(今甘肃平凉)军事判官等职。在云岩做县令时,政令严明,处理政事以“敦本善俗”为先,推行德政,重视道德教化,提倡尊老的社会风尚,每月初一召集乡里老人到县衙聚会,常设酒食款待,席间询问民间疾苦,提出训诫子女的道理和要求。县衙有规定和告示,他每次都召集乡老,反复叮咛到会的人,让他们转告乡民,因此,他发出的告示,即使不识字的人也没有不知道的。以百姓心为心,并不只是一句空洞的口号。

张载辞官回到横渠后,依靠家中数百亩薄田生活,整日讲学读书,并带领学生进行恢复古礼和井田制两项实践。横渠镇崖下村、扶风午井镇、长安子午镇仍保持着遗迹,至今这一带还流传着“横渠八水验井田”的故事。关学强调的“天序”思想更是渗透到乡规民约中,影响了陕甘冀晋一带的民风民俗,而且,这种思想至今仍影响着人们的行为,并远播海外——日本企业家就对关学推崇备至,甚至认为扶桑那一套精细管理的规范,就是从关学里获取的真经。

张载的一生,两被召晋,三历外仕,著书立说,开宗立派,终身清贫,殁后贫无以殓,学生闻讯赶来才得以买棺成殓。范文正公在千古名篇《岳阳楼记》中以“居庙堂之高则忧其民,处江湖之远则忧其君”自处,横渠先生进则为循吏,退则为乡贤,以实际行动在当时历史条件下开拓了儒者担当新局面。

横渠书院里的一块碑文,为于右任书写的“横渠四句”

思想及影响——

“横渠四句”句句有着落,为着力构建中国特色哲学社会科学提供了有益借鉴

《周易·复卦》有言:“复,其见天地之心乎?”《礼记·礼运》曰:“人者,天地之心也。” 天地之大德曰生,人心之全德曰仁。学者之事,最紧要的就是识仁求仁,如此乃是“为天地立心”。

对于理学家创始人之一的张载而言,当时面临的最大挑战就是佛老特别是佛教的兴盛,天下最聪明的头脑都被吸引过去,作为中华本土文化中坚的儒家,文化自信受到极大挑战。“自古诐、淫、邪、遁之词,翕然并兴,一出于佛氏之门者千五百年,自非独立不惧,精一自信,有大过人之才,何以正立其间,与之较是非、计得失!”“仁者,人也”,张载创造性地批判和吸收佛学,创立以气论哲学为基础的关学学派,并以此参与奠基理学,这是“为往圣继绝学”,目的也正是“为天地立心”,挺立天地中人的精神,重建国人的心灵世界。

“仁者以天地万物为一体。”儒者立志,须令天下无一物不得其所,方为圆成,不能仅仅满足于自己或少数君子安身立命。孔子曰:“老者安之,朋友信之,少者怀之。”有如此气象乃是“为生民立命”。

张载哲学思想最受推崇的是“民胞物与”的博大情怀。“民胞物与”是张载在《西铭》(又名《订顽》)一文中提出的:“乾称父,坤称母。予兹藐焉,乃混然中处。故天地之塞,吾其体;天地之帅,吾其性。民,吾同胞;物,吾与也。”人与我、物与人,同生天地之间,皆秉天地之性,所以,每个人都应当以万民为同胞,以万物为朋友。《西铭》是北宋以来对中国思想界影响极大的文章之一,同为理学奠基人的二程兄弟对张载其他思想多有批评,对这篇200多字的短文却称叹不绝:“《订顽》之言,极醇无杂,秦汉以来学者所未到。”康熙皇帝认为“张子《西铭》乃有宋理学之宗祖”。德国19世纪浪漫派诗哲诺瓦利斯曾说过一句名言:“哲学原就是怀着一种乡愁的冲动到处去寻找家园。”而《西铭》的价值正在于对人的精神家园即“立命”之地做了全面而生动的描绘。

张载说过:“求为贤人而不求为圣人,此秦汉以来学者之大弊。”程子也说过:“言学便以道为志,言人便以圣为志。”宋代理学家普遍认为,尧、舜、禹、汤、文、武、周公、孔、孟所传圣人之道,自孟子之后便学绝道丧了,他们的使命就是努力续接和开拓这个道统。“人能弘道,非道弘人。”张载反复强调“学必如圣人而后已”,为学者要以圣人为目标,如此气象乃是“为往圣继绝学”。

继承不是照着讲,而是接着讲。旧邦新命,需要哲思与时偕行。温故知新,儒家的创新往往是在创造性的继承中完成的,不仔细体会难以发觉。张载有首诗:“芭蕉心尽展新枝,新卷新心暗已随,愿学新心养新德,旋随新叶起新知。”吟咏芭蕉,托物言志,28字的诗句中出现了7个“新”,充分显示了他果于创新的胆识与追求。“义理有碍,则濯去旧见以来新意”“当自立说以明性,不可以遗言附会解之”“多求新意以开昏蒙”,这样的思想随处可见。后世弘扬横渠之学最为有力的王夫之就明言,张载思想学说中有不少内容是“六经之所未载,圣人之所不言”的。儒学贵在“知”、贵在思想的创新,更贵在“行”、贵在以实际行动积极影响社会,所谓“主持名教,担当世道”。

吕大钧等在老师张载的指导下发起实施的《吕氏乡约》,便是关学“经世致用”精神的表现,也是关学对传统进行创造性转化和创新性发展的突出体现。伦理道德规范是乡规民约的核心,西周就有这种思想了,但一直没有用文字将其系统表现出来,而制度必须成文才可能行之广泛。《吕氏乡约》是中国历史上第一次由乡贤领导地方民众主持和起草的乡民公约法则,被后世尊为中国乡约之祖,影响极大,各时代仿照《吕氏乡约》的乡规民约很多,甚至还被传到朝鲜、日本等国。政治学家萧公权给予其极高评价:“《吕氏乡约》于君政官治之外别立乡人自治之团体,尤为空前之创制。”

论学则必期于圣人,语治则必期于三代,内圣外王,一以贯之,这是理学家的共同志趣。程子说过:“王者以道治天下,后世只是以法把持天下。”这是对历史的针砭,也是对现实的指引。后来朱熹说得更清楚:“尧、舜、三王、周公、孔子所传之道,未尝一日得行于天地之间。”不仅要重建心灵秩序,还要重建社会政治秩序,以圣人之道引领天下实现有序、永续发展,如此气象乃是“为万世开太平”。

明代史家陈邦瞻说:“宇宙风气,其变之大者有三:鸿荒一变而为唐虞,以至于周,七国为极;再变而为汉,以至于唐,五季为极;宋其三变,而吾未睹其极也。”唐宋之交,贵族社会转向平民社会,社会结构和社会关系发生巨大变化。比如,唐末五代到北宋,“婚姻不问阀阅”,这与隋唐以前“婚姻必由于谱系”的传统是大为不同的。在新的历史条件下,如何让整个社会有效凝聚起来,让国家的长远发展有一个稳定的根基,这是张载所深思的问题。张载以礼教人,特别强调宗法制度的重要性,认为宗族世家可以有效维护好世臣的利益,从而使他们安心为国家效力,所谓“宗法若立,则人人各知来处,朝廷大有所益”。大河有水小河满,小河有水大河满,那些突然富贵起来的人,如果没有宗法制度的保障,人一死子孙就分裂了,家也没了,“如此则家且不能保,又安能保国家”!

如果说《吕氏乡约》的制定主要是基于地缘的考量,宗法制度的再造主要是基于血缘的考量,那么,“民胞物与”则在此基础上将仁爱之光照彻寰宇。“君子务本,本立而道生”“有根方生,无根便死”,“道”就是有本之木,生生不息。“己欲立而立人,己欲达而达人”,如果说“为天地立心”是“己立”“己达”,那么,“为生民立命”就是“立人”“达人”,这是空间维度的推扩;“为往圣继绝学,为万世开太平”则是在不忘本来中为中华乃至人类开辟未来,这是时间维度的推扩。如此一纵一横,方能可大可久。

“横渠四句”,句句有着落,为我们着力构建中国特色哲学社会科学提供了有益借鉴。

(本文配图均来自网络)

(文章来源:人民日报海外版原标题:张载及其“横渠四句”)

[责任编辑:李志明 PN032]

责任编辑:李志明 PN032

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